Hi, my name is Nicki Lerczak.
I'm the Instructional Services Librarian, and hopefully this video will help you understand how to do Chicago citation for your Historypaper for Mr.
We're going to move kind of quickly, so stickwith me.
First thing we want to do is talk about howdo we know what Chicago looks like?From the library's website we do have a link to ourcitation guides, and Chicago is one of those.
We have a PDF document.
Here it is.
We cover a lot of ground in this, dependingon what type of sources, just like MLA and APA, depending on what you're citing, you wantto look at examples for that type of material.
Just like MLA and APA, Chicago breaks up intobasically that back page of your paper, in this case, the Bibliography, and in the textof your paper, is the parenthetical or in-text, but Chicago, likes Footnotes.
So it's the same concept, only they are downat the bottom of the page, and they are numbered.
Same idea, different look.
You'll see how we turn one of those thingsinto the other, they go back and forth pretty easily.
If you've got one, you can pretty easily makethe other, and vice versa.
There is also a shortened version, we'll talkabout that.
So, we're going to bounce back and forth alittle bit.
First things first, if I go back to the library'shomepage, and I go to the History databases, so Databases A – Z.
Here are my History databases, and they arein a ranked order, so that the ones we think are best are at the top.
You can see that JSTOR is one of those databaseswe use a lot.
The JSTOR database is a little tough to workwith, but it has good stuff.
So here you can see my search for “unitedstates”(in quotes), and “civil war” (in quotes), that's to keep those 2 phrases together.
United States together and civil war together, and the term industrialization.
The limits that I will place on this are AmericanStudies, because that's my topic, and absolutely for this class, History.
Now let's search it.
All right, so I get a number of articles andthere are mixed in with those articles, book chapters.
Sometimes, a good book chapter is worth it'sweight in gold.
I came across one that I thought looked interesting, Industrialization, Immigration, and Urbanization:The Post-Civil War Years.
It's from something called, Envisioning NewJersey: An Illustrated History of the Garden State, written by Maxine Lurie and RichardVeit, published by Rutgers University Press in 2016.
So it's an academic press, it's relativelyrecent, it sounds like an interesting book.
If I wanted to read it, I can click on ithere.
It's a little challenging to read it in herebecause the font is pretty small.
I could try making that a bit bigger, it'sstill a little challenging, so in this case you might consider the Download the PDF option.
Which I have right here.
So here is what I get: a cover page with thedetails we had looked at a moment ago.
And then I've got my book, and this is a littlebit easier to see.
So you can see it goes on.
The other benefit to having a PDF is thatI will see those different page numbers, because for in text or footnote citations, I'm goingto want to know where that's coming from.
So let's talk about how we would cite this.
The databases all have tools to help you withthe citation.
In this case, there's a button called CiteThis Item, and it gives me the MLA, APA, and Chicago.
The thing to note, all my citationtools are giving you that back page of your paper, they're giving you the Bibliographyentry.
They're not giving you a footnote.
So you will have to basically take those Bibliographyentries and convert them into footnotes.
But like I said, it is easy to do.
So, we're going to copy this, and I'm goingto come to my Google Doc that I've been writing.
It's not a very good Google Doc.
You can see that I have US History paper forPalmer, some sentences, I hope you write a much better paper than I do.
And here is where I have my Bibliography.
Now, the Bibliography for this you can seeI've already created this, so let's go find them.
There they are.
Let's reveal them.
OK, so here's what I just got from JSTOR.
As I review this, and I compare it to my Chicagoentry for a part of a book.
Specifically what I'd like to see is a partof an online book.
So when I come to my Part of a book, I cansee Chapter or Part of a Book, all of my examples in this section are for print books.
So I'm going to keep looking, and here's eBooks.
And here's a part, this one that starts, Countryman, Edward.
This is a part of an eBook.
So I can see that I need an author.
I need a title.
I need to know what book this came from, ifthere is an editor listed, which I didn't see, you would include it, if you don't haveit, you can't put it.
The page range for the section.
This one happens to have a volume.
Publisher – where, who, and when, and then, either a link or the name of the publisher/source.
So if I go back to what I have.
I've got my authors.
I've got my title.
I can see what part of a book this is from.
Like I said, there's no editor and I don'thave a volume.
There's my page range.
I've got my publisher information.
I am lacking a location, and I think I'm missinga little more link, yes I am, let's bring that out as well.
But so you are missing a location here.
Is it hard to find in this case? Not really, because if I come back to JSTOR, and I come looking over here for information about my book, I can see there's a link tothe Rutgers University Press page inside the database, and I can see right here that thisis from New Brunswick, NJ, so I'm going to take that little detail.
This is common – all of my databases willusually have the right level of information but they won't always put it in the citation.
Do NOT blindly trust any citation tool – ALWAYSdouble check.
See if you're missing something that's readilyavailable.
So now I've got all of my information, noticethat I've already formatted this correctly.
So this is hanging indent, it is also single spaced.
So now, if I come up here and I want to turnthat into a footnote.
The way to put footnotes in, is you can seeI already have my numbers up here, these are footnotes.
So what you would do, is you would put yourmouse where you want the footnote to be.
I'm in Google Docs, but the same holds truefor Word, and I'm going to come up here to Insert Footnote, in Word it's References, but it's the same idea, and here's the footnote.
So it will put the little number 1 and I'mgoing to come down here and reveal my first footnote.
There it is.
And how do I convert from one to the other? Well, if you can look back here you can seethat this started off with Last name, First name, and then the second author got to benormal, and then I have a period.
I've got my title, and then I have a period.
I have what book it was in, and after thepage numbers, I have a period.
So I have all these periods that I need toconvert to make a footnote.
So I flip people's names, because footnotesbecome normal order of your name, and where I had a period, I put a comma.
I have a comma here now, so which means wherethis used to be capital “I, ” for “In, ” it's now lower case “i” for “in.
” I put my publisher location, date, name ofpublisher, all of that goes inside parentheses, and now I only want the specific page number, and then I end with that citation link, or what I have from the database, a stable webaddress.
So that's how I turn a Bibliography entryinto a Footnote.
Names flip, periods become commas, publicationinformation moves inside the parentheses.
All right, let's do this again, but now let'sdo it with an article.
So from my History page, this time I wouldcome to the New York Times Historical, which is a really great source, and the NY TimesHistorical you can see I'm going to do a search for “civil war”again keeping that phrase insidequotes to keep it together, and industry, and the cool thing about NY Times, is thatI can limit to a specific date range, and I'm going to limit this to the years of thecivil war, and do my search.
And now, I've got an interesting looking article, The Effects of the Civil War in America.
My browser doesn't want to display it correctly, I get a big blank spot down here, but I do have a Download PDF option, so if I ran intotrouble I could get it a different way.
Here is my article.
So I've got, Effects of the Civil War in America.
It's not very long article, it's a NY Timescolumn article.
Let's say I want to cite it.
I have a citation option, again, I am goingto get a Bibliography entry, but you can see that there are a lot of citation styles here, so we are using the latest edition of Chicago, the notes and bibliography entry.
So I would take all this, copy it and pasteit.
Let's go take a look in my doc.
So now, it is the middle entry, there it is, let's reveal it.
So here's what I just got, and again I'm goingto double check this against what I have in my citation guide.
This is a Newspaper article, you can see Ieven have an example of a NY Times article.
So I would love ideally an author's Last namecomma First name period.
The name of the title, period.
The name of the source, a comma, the date, a comma, I don't have an edition, and then the link to the thing.
So what do I have? Well, I have a title, period.
I have the source, comma.
The date, period, and then a link.
What I do have also though is a title that'sall in caps, which is not going to fly.
So let's format that and turn that into Titlecase which is a cool tool, if you don't know about it.
Now I'm happy with this.
So how do I take my Bibliography entry forthis and turn it into a footnote? Again, I would have come up here and put mymouse where I wanted the footnote to be, although this is counting for me, so this is number2.
So my second footnote, there you are, is revealed.
Same order, but comma, oops, missed my comma.
NY Times, and I believe oops, comma.
So I'm good.
Notice there's a space between those, again, the first line is indented here, it's the opposite of the hanging indent at the end.
Right now I've got a space between these, so single spaced, lines between.
Single spaced, lines between, but the indentsflip from Footnotes, to Bibliography.
All right, we've got one more source.
Let's say we've got a good web page, becausethe web is a great place, and I did a search for “united states”(in quotes) and “civil war”(inquotes) and industrialization, and I saw a really great website coming from the NationalPark Service, and I thought, “all right, let's take a look at that.
” So here's my great thing.
Now websites have no citation tool, so I'vegot to pull out the bits and pieces as best I can.
What do I need for a web page citation? All the basic stuff, author's name if I canhave it.
Title, who sponsored or owns the web site.
Date, some kind of date, publication, revision, modification, and if they don't have one, when did I look at it? And then a web address.
Putting all of that together, what do I createfor this? This guy is my third, and he comes in firsthere, because you'll notice I have organized this alphabetically.
He, my author, Benjamin T.
Arrington, is upat the top, but for my Bibliography, he's Arrington comma Benjamin.
So he's “A, ” that's “E, ” that's “L.
” So alphabetical, myauthor, period.
The title of the page, period.
The National Park Service is the one sponsoringit.
I had a last updated, so I went all the waythrough this and there was no date at the top, but all the way down at the bottom, luckilyfor me, in the corner, there's a last updated.
So I was able to grab that piece of information, and you'll see that I've included “last updated” to say what that date was, and then I've gotthe link.
How do I turn that into.
? Well, again, I put my mouse here, insert myfootnote, this is my third footnote, so let's go find it.
There it is, let's reveal it.
OK, turning this from a Bibliography, LastName comma First Name, becomes normal order name, comma, web page title, comma, NationalPark Service, comma.
Just like up here where I had to after I putthe comma in I had to make this a lower case “i, ” this becomes a lower case “l” becausethere's not a period before it now, and a comma goes before it, and a period at theend of it.
Lastly, short notes.
Each of these items will tell you, Bibliographyentry, Footnote entry, and then most of them will have a section about the short notes.
After you've cited your source one time, youdon't do that full citation again.
Only the first time you cite a source, youput all of these details in.
So if I had another one that I wanted to grab.
Let's say from that book, that first citationhere, the Lurie Veit book, and I said, “ah, I want to use that again.
” Well, what does that look like? A short note in this case, let me reveal it, you can see becomes just their last names, a shortened title (it's in quotation markshere, it stays in quotation marks), a page number, remember I knew the page numbers becauseI had that PDF, so that's handy.
What about a web page or an article? Well, let's say I wanted to use somethingelse from that one web page by Benjamin Arrington.
What would I to to him? Well, I'd insert my footnote, let me revealhim, so he's just last name, shortened title, there's no page numbers with the web, so Ican't put one.
Good to go.
My formatting says these should also be probablybe smaller, so you might come in and also tweak these.
There is a guide in the Chicago stylesheetthat we have that does talk to you about page formatting, so I'm going to make this allsmaller.
Usually your footnotes are smaller and that'swhat I thought, there was some inconsistency, some of these are the right size and someof these are bigger.
So yeah, your footnotes are usually smaller.
If you have questions, Ask a Librarian, Mondayto Friday 9 to 5, we can answer your questions, please reach out.